REVIEW FEMINIST THEORY: THE “BARGAINING” FRAMEWORK
An essential theoretical framework that underlies Agarwal’s work on property and also on environmental governance is that of “bargaining, ” which she initially developed in a Field of One’s Unique and subsequently elaborated in a widely cited article “Bargaining along with Gender Relations” (1997). This made significant theoretical efforts to feminist economics and is particularly the most downloaded article in the journal Feminist Economics. The concept of “bargaining, ” Agarwal fought, could be used to research gender inequality in a range of settings: the home, the community, the market, and the state of hawaii. In common with various other feminist economists, Agarwal refused the “unitary household” type, which assumed that almost all family members’ interests have been in harmony and benevolent household heads could be counted on to ensure fair outcomes. In the woman’s view, while cooperation in family members yields gains that make household members better off than they would be on their own, there are also conflicts of interest in regards to the division of tasks along with consumption. “Bargaining power” is usually a person’s ability to shape the outcome, and its determination is complex. One important factor is each person’s “fallback placement, ” which depends for the assets, earning power, and external support that she / he could rely upon when cooperation fails. The individual with worse outside possibilities has less bargaining energy. Also, Agarwal recognizes the central importance of social norms which specify the distribution of tasks and resources within the home and outside, along with social perceptions about people’s efforts and needs in figuring out bargaining power. She offers a major insight by outlining how social norms may themselves be bargained more than.
Analyzing bargaining power within the household is helpful for focusing on how women’s disadvantage is perpetuated and how it could be changed. The bargaining framework is usually relevant to other arenas. In labor markets, for example, what factors can enable workers to obtain higher wages and much better working conditions? In the particular political arena, what determines the impact a rights based team can exercise in interactions while using state? Most importantly, Agarwal shows how bargaining power available as one arena can influence women’s bargaining energy in other arenas. Hence a government of which frames women supportive procedures and laws can concurrently enhance their bargaining power within the home and in the neighborhood. Thinking in terms of bargaining power may help practitioners and researchers identify the true secret elements that stand in the way of achieving justice and devise effective methods for promoting change.