Chapters 1-4 are an opening movement of the slow pace . The classical theories of political authority are divided into FP ( formal procedure ) and SP ( background theories of the subject) . Interaction governed by rules and statutes adopting the two control – maker and knowledge of the rules follower of the core beliefs and values that contribute to creating the rule. The authority including four this context can not be explained by theories FP (86 ) . Chapter 5 presents the themes that the authority of the remaining chapters dominate are generally taken to ” judge ” by involving its nationals; authority may be justified only if the false accusation shows. Flathman with much subtlety prominent position of authority ( eg political authority ) an authority ( eg Sir Kenneth Clark Art History ) ( 93 , see also 1 ( FIF ) , domination or manipulation ( 99 ) , must respect politeness . Everyone ( 102 ) , and to do what is to be the merits or the best thing to do (104 ) Practice Authority is rooted in the faith and shared values assumed and hence requires Flathman ( 106 … see Ch 6 passim ) . isolated on the surrender of judgment analysis in Chapters 7 and 8 of the relationship between the government and power needed woolly . capacity differs from the strength, power and violence (see 162 ) , because, as authority is rooted in shared beliefs and values , and thus miss allocation of judgment . ability but did not distinguish between intra authority and ultra vires . ( 164 ) After a summary chapter (Chapter 9 ) , Chapter 10 , part II begins , and the issue of justification , introduced a another key concept , ‘agency’ – . more or less continuous and efficient capacity utilization self – powered drive , deliberate and rational ( 177 ) Authority is justified if and only if it is not only compatible , but also promotes a satisfactory level of the agency. Moreover, the authority i / after practice justified . Rousseau is shown to approach the ideal of Flathman than most other theorists ( 183-97 ), but it assumes absolutist axiology that there is no room for agency dissidents ( own perspective 199ff ) leaves . Flathman allows dissidents to the agency with respect to exercise. interpretation of beliefs and common values accept the dissident and support them , deserve to obey the respect of choosing that authority even if his dissent specific guidelines the authority . the possibility of dissent can never be eliminated , the Flathman subsidies , but is expected if the government is a Wittgensteinian practice, however , the justification for the authority is not the suppression of dissent needed .. What are the advantages of the theory of Wittgenstein Flathman on other theories ? Flathman convincingly demonstrates the superiority of his theory that he criticizes in fact. His closest rival would be different HLA Hart in the concept of law , despite the reluctance of Heart to the term “authority” ( cf. CL , p . 20 ) to use . Normative vision F’latlunan an open society imbued with respect for the dignity seen as justified and as dissidents authority is much more attractive than the “voluntary cooperation in a coercive system ” infamous Heart ( CL , p . 193 ) . Methodologically , both good results of a hostility to the essentialist definition and careful recognition of the complexity of the civil association episteniology The political value judgments is insufficient , assumed the position of Flathman than in Hart , it is possible to find a solution . Improvement The first question is simple: how can we reject both FP and SP theories of authority? The answer – effect Flathman There are substantive criteria of faith ( F theories’ – P is false) , but they are not determined by the values , the law – transcendental wild type ( ie theories are false SP ) . Fair enough , and so far Wittgenstein good . But now comes another question, if the normative justification of government is based on simple beliefs and shared values , ” the contract of opinions” in the words of Wittgenstein , instead of agreement in judgments ” ( Phil LNV 241 – . 242 ) is inevitable and there is unbearable perspective Flathman to his name sees this objection comes and spends chapter 14 a refutation – the ” subjective” element should be emphasized , because it is part of the agency ( 235 ) , the standards are not perspective , as there are enough similarities between the known value and beliefs ( 239 ) . This is stupid . Commonalities emerge as mere accidents on a cosmic scale . it is justifiable nol enough for really substantive criteria for the power of the anarchist . justified authority must dissent outside ( Flathman is good about ( 235 ) ) , but this is impossible as ” the practice of authority is that all subscribers or participants make their words and actions ” ( 231 , his italics ) .
Position Flathman but is a new and highly sophisticated theory FP . Understanding the “rule” is richer than, say Oakeshott , but it’s still legalistic conception . Tempo Flathman the theory forums offer a slot in which a particular association slips her substantive criteria is not enough to make . Itself a theory that provides a normative justification of authority. Ironically , Flathman itself explicitly states without realizing his own answer to the problem of Wittgenstein meaning. In two passages ( 80ff , 142ff ) Flathman IHE refers to ” general facts of nalure ” Wittgenstein spoke often and are also part of his concept of a “rule” . It is clear from On Certainty (see esp . 96ff and Shiner , Philosophy 1974 Proc . Da laugh I. Soc . 1977-1978 ) that Wittgenstein considered ihese general facts restrict the content ( humanly ) possible rules (and thus beliefs and values ) , or mathematical , scientific , ethical , political or otherwise. The doctrine of ” minimum content of natural law ” ( CL , c . Ix ) Heart is a theory about how to limit the content of the faith in a society , the general facts of nature and also do eg ” natural necessity ” ( cf. CL , 195 ) p . , not by cosmic accident. The call for ” general facts of nature ” principle is a normative justification of authority ground than coincidental similarities Flathman while still avoiding excess absolutist he rightly deplores . Flathman in the practice of political authority brings us closer as almost everyone has a good understanding of the political authority and its correlates , political and legal break obligations. But the threshold is yet to come .