Compensation strategies enable learners to use the new language for either comprehension or production despite limitations in knowledge. Compensation strategies are intended to make up for inadequate repertoire of grammar and, especially, of vocabulary. Ten compensation strategies exist, clustered into two set: Guessing Intelligently in Listening and Reading, and Overcoming Limitations in Speaking and Writing. Guessing strategies, sometimes called “differencing,” involve using a wide variety of clues linguistic and nonlinguistic to guess the meaning when the learner does not know all the words. Good language learners, when confronted with unknown expressions, make educated guesses. On the other hand, less adept language learner often panic, tune out, or grab the dogeared dictionary and try look up unfamiliar word harmful responses which impede progress toward proficiency. She further added that guessing is actually just a special case of the way people typically process new information that is, interpreting the data by using the immediate context and their own life experience. It is experience which provides the source of many intelligent guesses for both language expert and novices. Compensation occurs not just in under-standing the new language but also in producing it. Compensation strategies allow learners to produce spoken or written expression in the new language without complete knowledge. Many compensation strategies for production are used to compensate for a lack of appropriate vocabulary, but these strategies can also be used to m ake u p of a I ack of g rammatical knowledge. For instance, if learners do not know to express the subjunctive form of a verb, they might use a different form to get the message across (Oxford, 1990:49). She further added that compensation strategies for production help the learners to keep on using that language, thus obtaining more practice. In addition, some of these strategies, such as adjusting or approximating the message, help the learners become more fluent in what they already know. Still other compensation strategies, like getting help and coining words, may lead learners to gain new information about what is appropriate or permissible in the target language words and structures. Factors Affecting Strategy Choice. Many factors influence learning strategy choice: language being learned; duration; degree of awareness; age; sex; affective variables, such as attitudes, motivation level/intensity, language-learning goals, motivational orientation, personality characteristics, and general personality type; learning style; aptitude; career orientation; national origin language teaching methods and task requirements (Oxford, 1989:236). The language being studied has an influence on the strategies that are used. However, it is likely that language of study interacts with a host of other variables. Therefore, students might be learning different languages for different purposes, which will be reflected in choice of strategies.
Previous studies about language-learning strategies. Some researchers have reported the findings of the previous research about beliefs and language learning strategies. Some factors related to the results of this study such as duration, degree of awareness, .affective variables, career orientation, and strategy training are reviewed in this part. They need to respond in order to sustain the conversation. Dealing with vocabulary, Scoff and Barret (2008:153) from their research at Banjarmasin stated that vocabulary learning strategies using criteria of “need, search and evaluate,” could encourage high-retention vocabulary learning and depth rather than breadth of knowledge. For such cases, Acep (2008:102) supported that teacher should expose a lot of learning strategies example to the students to motivate them as high motivation, positive attitude and strong effort are the main factors of successful learners of English as a foreign language.