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MENGENAL BARTHOLOMEU DIAS, (1450-1500)

Nakhoda kapal dan penjelajah Portugal yang menemukan rute ke Timur Jauh melalui ujung Afrika Selatan. Penemuannya ini memberi sumbangan besar bagi kelancaran arus dagang Timur-Barat di abad ke-15. Tahun 1487 Raja John II dari Portugal memerintahkan Dias berlayar sampai ujung selatan Afrika, untuk mengetahui apakah Asia dapat dicapai dengan berlayar mengitari Benua Afrika. Dias membawa

PENGERTIAN DIALOGISME

Dalam logika, penyimpulan sebuah premisilogisme kategorial ke disjungsi (pengatauan) kesimpulan dan pengingkaran premis lain. Secara umum, dialogisme dirumuskan sebagai berikut: bila penyimpulan A dan B ke C itu sah, maka penyimpulan dari A ke C v B. Atau dengan contoh: – Semua kucing (A) itu binatang (B) – Semua binatang (B) itu makhluk (C) Maka

KNOW ABOUT SELF-REPORT MEASURES OF DIETING

Third, self-report measures of dieting over the past year and dieting support frequency over the prior four weeks were used. Given that weight-loss treatment programs appear to have more beneficial effects on weight-loss than spontaneous dieting efforts, it may be advantageous to investigate the effect of natural partner support within a sample of women involved

MEANS DIFFERENT SUPPORTERS PROVIDE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SUPPORT

Weight-loss support provided by romantic partners appears to be beneficial in increasing women’s healthy dieting attempts. Interestingly, intimate partners were more likely than friends and family to offer instrumental help, but less likely to offer informational help. The finding that informational weight-loss support is offered less often in romantic relationships also makes sense. Informational weight-loss support

KNOW ABOUT DIETING SUPPORT AND OUTCOMES HEALTHY DIETING

Although women who were doing more healthy dieting reported that their partners were providing more frequent weight-loss related support, these women did not report that their partners were more helpful in their weight-loss efforts as was expected. Healthy dieting. Although very little research has looked at the role of weight-loss support in everyday dieting efforts, the

MEANS DIETING SUPPORT, PARTNER SUPPORT OF DIETING AND THE ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

As predicted, women who were anxious in their attachment style reported that their partners were less helpful in their weight-loss efforts (although they did not report that their partners were providing less frequent weight-loss support). Perceptions of how supportive partners were are related by definition to attachment style. Contrary to expectations however, an avoidant attachment

KNOW ABOUT THE PIVOTAL ROLE OF EATING DISORDERED ATTITUDES

As discussed earlier, the psychological variables related to unhealthy dieting all involve a weak sense of self-worth, which is a risk factor for the development of body dissatisfaction and eating disordered attitudes. While we tested and found support for a causal model that ran from self functioning through to unhealthy dieting, cross-sectional regression analyses are

KNOW ABOUT HEALTHY AND UNHEALTHY DIETING TECHNIQUES

The use of unhealthy dieting techniques is another story. As expected, women who were using more unhealthy dieting techniques were more depressed and had lower self-esteem. Self functioning. As expected, healthy dieting was not related to self functioning. That is, while healthy dieting behaviours appear to be part of normal life, unhealthy dieting behaviours seem to

KNOW ABOUT WEIGHT-LOSS EFFECTIVENESS OVER TIME

Cross-lagged regressions weight-loss effectiveness. To assess whether any of the individual-difference or relationship variables predicted change over time in either weight-loss effectiveness or body satisfaction, the standard multiple regression approach was used. For example, body satisfaction at time 4 (the final measurement) was regressed on both body satisfaction at time 1  and one predictor variable (relationship

SUPPORT FOR UNHEALTHY DIETING

All the scales demonstrated good reliability, except for the unhealthy dieting scale. The internal reliability for the unhealthy dieting scale was somewhat concerning. Within-Individual correlations Self and relationship functioning. Women with higher self-esteem reported higher relationship  satisfaction. Higher relationship satisfaction and self-esteem were also associated with lower attachment anxiety and avoidance. Females who reported higher

WEIGHT MANAGEMENT SUPPORT FREQUENCY AND HELPFULNESS CORRELATIONS

Correlation between weight-loss support frequency and helpfulness. Weight-loss support and self functioning. Against predictions, no significant within participant or across-partner associations were found between female self functioning (selfesteem, depression, attachment style) and male or female reports of how frequently males provided support to their female partners. Women’s reports of the frequency of weight-loss support provided by

WEIGHT-LOSS SUPPORT, EATING DISORDERED ATTITUDES AND UNHEALTHY DIETING

Weight-loss support and eating disordered attitudes. Low levels of general social support have been linked to the development of eating disorders. Furthermore, Black and Threlfall note that dieting individuals with a slimmer partner lost more weight than those  with overweight partners. Lack of weight-loss support specifically may be a particularly poignant marker to dieting women
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